Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is an advanced modeling technology for evaluating mixing conditions, such as velocity and turbulence within the computational domain and identifying areas with flow accelerations due to channeling effects and reverse flows due to obstructions.
Our CFD modeling services are used to analysis outdoor air flow around a building or the micro-climate surrounding a building as well as indoor air quality. In addition, specific applications or proposed designs can be undertaken and analyzed.
The micro-climate analysis is undertaken to ensure that pedestrian environment is designed to be comfortable year-round. The analysis is based on the meteorological weather data obtained from the nearest weather station for a long period. Using this data, wind roses at the site are established to determine dominant wind directions affecting the pedestrian comfort at the building entrances and around the building. The micro-climate analysis comprises of Pedestrian Wind Levels (PWL) around the building, Exhaust Re-entrainments and snow drifting and ice falling and accumulation from and into the building.
- Pedestrian Wind Levels (PWL) study requires advanced modeling such as CFD modeling and/or wind tunnel study. The outcome of the PWL study is the pedestrian comfort map around the building based on predicted average wind speeds around the building as shown in Figure 1 below.
In addition, we will be able to determine if snow ingestion into the building through intakes will occur based on the average wind speed at the intakes, the wind direction and the design face velocities of the intakes.
- Snow drift calculations are conducted to determine canopy depths required to prevent both obstruction and entry of snow to the building. For each entrance, a snow drift depth rose is established based on the direction of the entrance and the relevant wind directions affecting the snow drift at this entrance (i.e., wind directions ± 90° from the façade entrance). Falling ice and accumulation can constitute a risk to pedestrian and can also be analyzed.
With the above analysis key design factors such as location of entrances, canopy depths and architectural landscaping around the building are checked to ensure a safe and comfortable environment for pedestrian.
Indoor air Analysis
Indoor air analysis is undertaken to study the quality of the air circulating inside the building and thus determine the efficacity of the HVAC system. With the CFD modeling, we can establish the cartography or map of the air in terms of speed, temperature, moisture levels as well as any contaminant distribution inside the building envelope. With the CFD modeling, we can reach design target criteria to control the micro-climate inside a room such a growing indoor room as shown in figure 2.
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